Browsing: Developmental Disabilities

The Use of Penile Clamp for Urinary Incontinence

What is the definition of urinary incontinence? Urinary incontinence is the unplanned loss of urine that is sufficient to be considered a problem. Urinary continent relations on intact and normal functioning of urinary, neurologic, and musculoskeletal systems. Continence or the voluntary control of urination is maintained via a complex communication in the urinary system which all of the organs in the urinary tract must be functioning efficiently. Any breaks in the communication such as bladder obstruction can cause some degree of urinary dysfunction. With urinary dysfunction, the result can be urinary incontinence or the unplanned leakage of urine.

Why do Physicians develop the use of penile clamp? Urinary incontinence affects people of all ages but it is particularly common among the elderly. It has been reported that half of the residents in nursing homes suffer from urinary incontinence. Although, urinary incontinence is not a consequence when aging, the age related changes in the urinary tract is one of the predisposing factors that contribute to incidence of unplanned loss of urine. This incidence gives the start of manufacturing clamps for the sake of those that sufferers this condition. Its main consideration of providing clamps is for the advantage of those that sufferers urinary incontinence.

The Causes of Urinary Incontinence
What is the cause of urinary incontinence? The causes of this disorder are diseases and injuries that contribute to nerve damages. The damaging nerves can affect the urinary system making the organs breaks from communication with normal functioning. You need to consider that your urinary system must function normally to accommodate the normal flow of urine. It is a system that should work properly to normally hold the normal amount of urine in the bladder before releasing it at the exact time. But, with nerve damage that affects the organs to malfunction, the result can be urinary unplanned leakage.

Why men with urinary incontinence need to use penile clamps? Men that suffer with conditions of urinary incontinence need to have a voiding schedule. Although the tendencies with cognitively impaired patients may not follow an intact schedule, family members and nursing personnel need to assist through the process. The main purpose of the schedule is to empty the bladder before the bladder arrives to a critical volume that can cause an urge and stress incontinence episodes. In addition, the benefit is to eliminate leakage of urine from involuntary flow while being comfortable and in control before any sudden flow of urine.

The standard voiding frequency with the use of clamps can establish the behavioral interventions for urinary incontinence. One of the approaches that involve clamps for the intervenations of urinary leakage is timed voiding. It involves establishing a set of voiding frequency such as every two hours when incontinent episodes tend to occur. The person chooses to urinate at a given interval time while awake, rather than wait until voiding urge occurs. Before the given time to urinate, the person must use clamps to hold the urine leakage.

The habit retraining is timed voiding at an interval that is more frequent than the individual would usually choose. It is a technique that helps restores the sensation of the need to void in individuals who are experiencing diminished sensation of bladder filling. The penile clamps that holds the urethra from urinary flow helps the intervals of habit retraining in restoring normal functioning.

What Do Penile Clamps Look Like?
Penile clamps are a useful device that is specifically placed around your pen, which which are used for the intervention of unplanned loss of urine. The outer covering of the penile clamps are made of plastic while the inside of the clamps are very soft flexible foams. It is made of foam to accommodate comfort for the penis. Additionally, it is a comfortable well designed cradle like pad that gives no extreme pressure. The pressure is equally distributed as the penile clamp is strapped around the penis. The long wearing and lightweight characteristics of clamps gives the freedom of enjoying everyday routines without pressure.

What will happen when you tighten and loosen the placement of your penile clamp? When clamps are strapped around the penis, the soft pad can very press the urethra making it stops any leakage of urine. clamps are designed to prevent the flow of unplanned loss of urine as well as created to ensure the normal blood flow. There are some instances such as penile clamps when tighten too much will result in restrictions of normal blood flow, irritates the outer layer of skin, and damages the urethra. On the other hand, when clamps are loosing too much the result can be leakage of urinary flow due to no pressure on the urethra. Therefore, you need practice to reach the right and exact pressure needed. After all, penile clamp is not a difficult device to use and also an excellent choice intended for men with urinary incontinence.

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Penile Clamps To Control Male Urinary Incontinence

What is the function of a penile clamp? The function of a clamp is to control and prevent uncontrollable urine leakage. It looks like a padded clamp with an inner covering of soft and flexible foam while the outer part is made of plastic.

The clamp is usually place around the shaft of your penis. You need to open the device before wrapping the penile clamp around your penis. It is mostly placed at the bottom part of your penis and when it is carefully placed, you need to squeeze the clamp to close. When taking off the penile clamp, you need to press the spring loops inward to open. Every time you place your clamp, you need to consider the proper placement of ensuring it is not so tight. The tight placement of your clamp can result in restriction of normal blood circulation. You should make sure it is place correctly.

The manufactured penile clamps may come as disposal while some products are not. When not disposable, you may wash you penile clamps using soaps and rinse it with warm water. After that, squeeze to dry the inner foam of your clamps. The clamps are made of closed cell foam which could not absorb water making it easy to wash and dry. You can use it again after drying it from direct heat of the sun. Just make sure to wear only dry and clean to promote hygiene while discouraging the occurrences of skin infections and skin irregularities.

Can a clamp give a damaging effect to your penis? There are incidences when it can hurt your penis. It hurts when it is not place in the wrong position and when it is place too tightly around your penis. You need to regularly check the skin of your penis starting from the top to bottom of your penis shaft. An assessment is needed to evaluate your penis skin integrity before everything gets worse. The penis skin irregularities that may occur includes broken skin, torn skin, reddened and pale blue skin, skin breakdown, swelling, and scarring. In situations when skin irregularities arise, you need to see your Physician immediately and ask for more advice.

In order to suitably place your it, you can go apply moisturizing creams on skin of your penis before placing your penile clamps. You can get the benefits of eliminating the occurrences of skin irritations and skin irregularities. In addition, you need to remember the scheduled release of your clamps every one to two hours. The point is that, the scheduled release will discourage any occurrences of bladder urinary tract infections and bladder infections. As with ideal usage of clamps, you can use it for two hours in two periods for a day. The idea is to train your bladder of not leaking abnormally and helping it function normally.

The clamp is the medically approved intervention for those who suffer incontinence problems. This is carefully designed to wrap around the shaft of your penis. It is an external clamp that provides a comfortable pressure for the urethra to stop any leakage of uncontrollable urine flow. The outer part is made of lightweight plastic and offers in high quality endurance. The inner coverage is medically approved by health care professionals with unique designs of not absorbing wet during urine leakage. It measures 3 inches long by 1/2 inches wide which makes this device unnoticed when wearing underwear. It is the guaranteed product that provides persons with urinary incontinence condition a very comfortable and natural feeling.

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Stress Control Helps ADHD

Limiting stress in the lives of people with ADHD may be one of the most effective treatments available for improving ADHD symptoms. The reason for this may be because people with ADHD have a faulty stress response. A new study that was just published in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology confirms that children with ADHD have a heightened physiological response to stressful emotions being positive or negative.

Mood regulation is known to be disrupted in adults and children with ADHD. People with Inattentive ADD are known to exhibit the symptoms of anxiety, depression and moodiness. People with the Combined type of ADHD can be not only anxious and depressed but also prone to angry outburst and oppositional behavior.

The study findings in this new study may explain why. The findings showed that when children with ADHD are exposed to positive or negative stress, their bodies react strongly and their ability to recuperate from the stressful exposure is diminished.

All the children in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology study had a normal sympathetic response to the stress but the children with ADHD had a malfunctioning recovery response. This inability to regulate emotion occurs at the parasympathetic control center and not at the sympathetic control level. The difference is important.

The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are part of the autonomous nervous system and they are 'hard wired' in our brains. Our parasympathetic system handle our resting autonomic functions and our sympathetic reflexes handle the reaction reflexes such as those used for “fight and flight”.

The job of the parasympathetic system is to balance the sympathetic system and to promote rest and relaxation after action. It is the parasympathetic system that lowers our heart rate and brings our body back to a 'balanced' and relaxed state after a state of heightened stress.

The study in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology demonstrated that children with ADHD have malfunctioning parasympathetic systems. What this means, in English, is that these kids stay at a heightened stress state when exposed to good or bad stress. Their systems do not properly return to a state of relaxation. We know from many other studies, performed on both adults and children, that being in a chronic stress state leads to illness and disease.

Interventions such as meditation, yoga and relaxation techniques can counteract the damage of a faulty parasympathetic response and can enable our bodies to recuperate from stress and to return to a relaxed state. This may be the physiological reason why studies performed on meditation and ADHD have shown that meditation can improve ADHD symptoms.

I have found, at home, that limiting stress can be a very effective treatment for improving the symptoms of ADHD. Relaxation CDs and other measures of stress relief such as exercise, yoga and meditation can all help improve the inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity and moodiness of ADHD.

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Williams Syndrome Genetic Deletion – Why Does It Happen?

If you've ever entered “Williams Syndrome” into an internet search engine you've probably also received an answer that describes it as a complex condition.

There are many symptoms that can indicate a likely diagnosis of Williams Syndrome: learning disability accompanied by various physical symptoms, an elfin face, small stature, narrowing of the arteries, poor physical coordination, very poor numerical skills, surprisingly well developed verbal and musical skills … What a collection of contrasting symptoms!

You've probably also heard that Williams Syndrome is caused by a microdeletion of a small number of genes from one copy of Chromosome 7.

When you know the person who has, or may have Williams Syndrome, what does all this mean?

Two questions often arise:
1) Is it my fault? Just how or why does the deletion event?
2) How can deleting, losing, just a few genes cause all the symptoms of Williams Syndrome?

If you'll allow me just a few more minutes of your time I'll do my best to explain the complex ideas
behind the technical stuff.

The first question is actually easier to answer so we'll start there. The second question will be answered in a related article on this site “Williams Syndrome Genetic Deletion – what do these genes do?”

To begin with the cells in each and every human being has a nucleus containing the chromosomes which hold the instructions on how to build a human being. You can imagine the nucleus is like a library containing bookshelves. Each chromosome is a different shelf containing different books in the series of books called “How to make a human being”.

These chromosomes are made of the chemical DNA and every cell in our body has 23 different chromosomes, but they come in pairs. So we have 23 pairs of chromosomes and within each pair, one comes from our Mom and one from our Dad. These chromosomes hold our genes, like individual books in this story of life. This means that for most of our genes we have two copies, not identical but very similar versions of the story of life. These tiny differences, together, are what makes each individual, well, an individual.

In someone with Williams Syndrome, at some stage, probably during the formation of the egg or sperm cell, maybe just after fertilization has occurred, a small piece of chromosome 7 was lost. A person with Williams Syndrome has lost just 20 of the more than 1000 genes from only one of their two copies of chromosome 7. This tiny difference, too small to be seen even down a microscope, is enough to cause what we know as Williams Syndrome and it's varied symptoms.

Why does this deletion happen?

On one level, it's a random event, it just happens to a very small number of cells as they grow and divide on a fairly rare and random basis. It really is no one's fault.

One of the “normal” things about the way cells division, particularly during the formation of egg or sperm cells, is that sometimes chunks of genes get shuffled, it's like trying to organize the books on the shelf by picking up a large block of books at the same time.

We do know something about why this particular set of genes is more likely to be affected by such shuffling and I explain this in more detail on the Williams Syndrome Adult website. If you're trying to understand why someone you know is affected by Williams Syndrome, you might want to visit that website for the more detailed version of this article.

Gene shuffling may sound strange but it can be a positive thing from an evolutionary point of view. It's one of the things that helps to make each individual a unique human person.

If we go back to the idea of ​​genes being like books arranged on a bookshelf, you can imagine that re-organizing the books along a bookshelf can also make it easier to find the information or put related stuff together in the same section.

However, if you are trying to shuffle large groups of more than 10 or 20 books at a time, it would not be unusual for one or two to drop every now and then, get lost from the bookshelf and the dividing cell does not really have a way to pick up dropped books (or deleted genes) from the floor.

The effects of these deletions are very different depending on which genes are involved. Many changes are fatal and the affected cells can never grow or mature.

Other changes are not fatal, the cells can grow and, if these changes occur in the chromosomes of an egg or a sperm cell, the deletion is then copied into every cell as the new human being grows and develops.

But more than 20 genes are usually affected and in Williams Syndrome their story is still being unraveled. Again, you'll find more information on articles on the Williams Syndrome Adult website, so please do come and pay us a visit to find out more.

The hope is that, with better understanding, one day will come the potential for treatment of the symptoms.

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Coping With Cystic Fibrosis Using Nutrition and Exercise

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by a defect in one particular gene known as CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator). About 1 person in 25 of European descent has this gene. However your chance of having CF is more like 1 in 3,000, as you only get it if both your parents have the gene. That should roughly be a 1 in 625 (25 * 25) chance, but because of genetic shuffling that is reduced to about 1 in 3,000 for people of European descent. People with other racial backgrounds have the CF gene less often, and so CF is less common in other racial groups.

There are different types of Cystic Fibrosis, as the gene defects different. This means that the best medication for different people with CF varies. Diet and exercise advice is more uniform however, and depends more on the persons dietary preferences and fitness.

What are the symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis?

Cystic Fibrosis changes the ability of the epithelial cells lining your lungs, liver, pancreas, digestive tract, reproductive tract and skin to transport chloride ions. In practice this means that chloride ion concentration inside and outside the cell differs from the normal situation. Many of these epithelial cells produce mucus and the abnormal chloride concentration leads to mucus outside cells becoming less watery and more sticky. This leads to problems in the lungs and pancreas. Within the skin, the sweat glands produce more chloride than normal, and this is the basis for one test that can detect CF.

Lung problems:

Typically this sticky mucus can cause a blockage to small airways in the lungs leading to difficulty breathing. Also microbes which are done on it are not able to be removed as efficiently. The mucus which normally gets shunted up the airways like a travelator is slowed down as it is more viscous. This means that microbes are more likely to establish themselves in the lungs and are more difficult to remove. A chronic inflammatory response is established, which over time leads to scar tissue formation (fibrosis) and the appearance of cysts. Here is the name of the condition “cystic fibrosis”. The lung problems are typically treated by inhalation of substances which cause the bronchioles to dilate, such as steroids. Substances that reduce inflation, such as ibuprofen, can also be used.

Because people with CF can have microbes in their lungs that are harmful to other people with CF, it is generally not recommended that they spend too much time with other people with the condition. In the past inhalers were shared between people with CF and this was specifically damaging to their life chances.

Digestive problems:

The pancreas is an organ that produces pancreatic juice that helps digest your food making absorption of the nutrients possible. With CF the pancreatic juice containing the enzymes that break down fats, carbohydrates and proteins can get blocked in by sticky mucus. This is mostly a problem for fat digestion as carbohydrates (eg bread, pasta and cakes) can be broken down in the mouth, and proteins (eg chicken, tuna and soya) in the stomach. A small amount of fat can be broken down in the mouth and stomach by the enzymes lingual lipase and gastric lipase respectively. However these enzymes are not normally sufficient to break down fats well enough for efficient absorption. As a result people with CF can become short on essential fatty acids and the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Nowadays most people with CF get given digestive enzymes, which makes it possible to get sufficient amounts of these nutrients if they eat a good diet.

How genes work:

To understand why a genetic disease like Cystic Fibrosis occurs you need to understand a bit about genetics.

When you are born you are given 23 chromosomes from your mother and 23 from your father. They are duplicate, in that each of the 23 chromosomes pairs up with the equivalent chromosome from your other parent. At a given point down the chromosome is a gene. Usually it takes more than one gene to create a trait such as hair color or how much oxygen your blood can carry. However there are cases where only one gene creates a trait.

The widows peak hairline is a single gene trait. If even one parent carries it you'll end up with a hairline receding on either side, because the widow's peak trait is a dominant gene. You'll only end up with a straight across hairline if both parents carry the recessive (non-dominant) gene.

Cystic Fibrosis is another single gene trait. If both mum and dad have the gene then there is a good chance you'll get it. If one parent has the gene then you will not get it because you'll use the other parents non-CF gene. It is slightly more complex than this, as when your dad's sperm meets your mum's egg they mix their DNA in a way that can change a CF gene into a non-CF gene, and so your chance of getting CF is reduced.

The CFTR gene, like most genes, makes proteins that your body can use. The normal CFTR gene makes a protein that transports chloride ions into and out of epithelial cells. the transport of some other ions can also be affected. Different errors (or mutations as they are called in genetics) can affect the CFTR gene. The most common (called FF508) causes it to create a protein that does not fold correctly. It is hard to get this misfolded protein into the cell membrane so that it can allow chloride ions to escape.

Is exercise good for people with Cystic Fibrosis?

Definitely yes. Exercise, both cardiovascular and strength exercises, help to improve many of the symptoms diagnosed with CF.

  1. It clears the airways in the lungs. This brings in more oxygen which can slow down the growth of some of the bacteria that can set up camp in the lungs of people with CF.
  2. It increases lung capacity, making it easier to breathe.
  3. It increases strength and endurance. CF does not reduce exercise capacity directly, but lung infection and nutritional deficiency can affect strength and endurance. Cardiovascular exercise and weight bearing exercises that involve using your bodyweight or lifting weights all help. Exercise normally increases appetite which should help prevent nutritional deficiencies.
  4. It increases bone density. This is important as deficiency in vitamins D and K can lead people with CF to develop weaker bones.

A person with CF should be aware that they may sweat out more salt during exercise and for this reason may need to use a sports drink containing plenty of salt. Not all sports drinks contain salt. A list of those that do, in decreasing order of saltiness is: (PowerbarEndurance *; High5 Isotonic *; Isostar ; Taut *; High5EnergySource; LucozadeSport ; InfinitRide *; Powerade ). So, of those that are not powders, Isostar may be the best. Remember that Colas contain very little salt.

Bear in mind that those with '*' by them are in powder form. For purposes of comparison they are assumed to be watered down to an isotonic strength. Roughly 60grams of powder for every liter of water. Those in bold can be normally found in shops in liquid form.If you want to avoid artificial sweeteners (Lucozade) and excess calcium (Isostar), then the Powerbar and High5 powders are good choices. Alternately, add 1/2 a gram of table salt to a typical 500ml drinking bottle containing fruit juice.

What is the best diet for someone with Cystic Fibrosis?

It is best to eat a diet that includes plenty of the nutrients that are deficient in CF. These are vitamins A, D, E and K as well as the essential fatty acids and salt. Calcium is also often mentioned as being needed, but the evidence is not strong for this. Whether there are grounds for supplementation for the fat soluble vitamins is open to debt. If pancreatic enzyme supplements are being used, then the fat soluble vitamins in the diet should be appropriately absorbed. In other words the best approach for most people with CF is to eat a diet containing plenty of the foods mentioned below.

Major Nutrients: For most people with CF it is important to eat more than other people, as absorption from the gut is not as efficient due to the lack of pancreatic digestive enzymes. There is an increased need for essential fats called omega 6 and omega 3, and so a diet containing good sources of these fats is important. Omega 6 fats are very common in modern diets, whereas omega 3 fats are pretty rare. To keep a good level of omega 3 fats in the diet, include plenty of oliy fish such as trout, salmon, sardines, pilchards and kippers. A supplement containing omega 3, such as cod liver oil could also help. The other major nutrient to eat in good amounts is protein, which is not absorbed so well in most people with CF. It is needed in childhood for growth, and later on for maintenance and repair of the body. Eating plenty of meat, fish and some diary is the most effective way to ensure good protein nutrition. Carbohydrate is used for energy. However it is best not to have too much of it on its own, as it can cause blood sugar spikes which can lead to glucose intolerance and often diabetes. My advice is to eat a diet that emphasizes the healthy forms of protein and fat with plenty of vegetables. Eat a moderate amount of starches such as bread, pasta, rice and potato. Fruits and sweet trees are also best ateen in moderation. Do make sure that enough is being ate in total though.

Vitamin A: This vitamin is needed for good vision, immunity, red blood cell production and growth. It is found at high levels in liver. Dairy foods such as cheese, milk and yoghurt as well as eggs contain good amounts of vitamin A. Dark green and yellow vegetables are also good sources of beta carotene, which the body can turn into vitamin A.

Vitamin D: This important vitamin is needed for good bone health as well as many other important roles in the body such as immunity, growth and cardiovascular health. It is found at high levels in liver. Although sunshine is the best way to get vitamin D, so outdoor exercise provides the person with CF a double benefit of airway clearance and a supply of vitamin D also.

Vitamin E: This is found in good amounts in nuts, seeds and their oils, including margarine. Egg yolks and avocados also contain a fair amount as do green leafy vegetables. Most nut and seed oils and margarine contain trans-fats which are not good for health. However nut butters such as peanut butter are probably healthier sources as they normally contain palm oil, which contains less trans fats than sunflower, safflower and vegetable oils. Check the label to be sure. My advice is to stick to nuts, seeds, eggs, avocados and green leafy vegetables with some peanut butter thrown in to keep you vitamin E levels up.

Vitamin K: This vitamin allows blood to clot properly, preventing uncontrolled bleeding. It also helps the formation of strong bones. It is found in green leafy vegetables. Kale, chard, broccoli and parsley are all excellent sources.

Salt: Since people with CF sweat a particularly salty sweat they are prone to lose a lot of salt. Unlike the general population eating plenty of salty snacks is a good habit to develop, especially after sweating a lot as during hot weather or during and after exercise. Some of the healthiest ways of taking on more salt are by eating more olives or oily fish. Commercial bread also contains a lot of salt. Care should be taken with infants, especially below the age of one as there is a possibility of salt poisoning at this age.

Calcium: Do people with CF need more calcium? One reason they may not, is that they suffer from kidney stones more often. Excess calcium in the body can supersaturate the kidneys with calcium, and lead to the production of calcium oxalate stones. Traditionally calcium was advised as being needed to strengthen the bones, as people with CF are ready to have weaker bones. However, there is no evidence I've found that good calcium balance is not maintained in people with CF. They can absorb and retain it adequately. The reason they develop weaker bones is much more likely to do with their lack of vitamin D and vitamin K. Certainly calcium supplements are unnecessarily to be needed. Eating calcium containing dairy foods and sardines should be OK without excess amounts are ateen. If kidney stones are already present then cutting down on dairy foods is probably in order.

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Williams Syndrome Genetic Deletion – What Do These Genes Do?

When you know someone who has, or may have Williams Syndrome, often your first reaction is to begin to search for information on the internet.

If you've done this, you'll never doubt have read that there are many possible symptoms. As a parent you're often aware of the slow development of your child. You often see that they have an elfin face, their teeth may be small and gappy, they are often smaller than any brothers or sisters.

Physically they may be diagnosed with narrowing of the arteries, or a heart murmur, they may have problems with constipation or with hernias.

Williams Syndrome symptoms also include many effects on the intellectual aspects of the person affected. They often show learning disability, poor physical coordination, very poor numerical skills, surprisingly well developed verbal and musical skills …

When you're searching for reasons you'll probably read that Williams Syndrome is caused by a microdeletion of DNA from chromosome 7.

It's only natural you will ask – what does all this mean?

Often we begin with two questions:

1) Is it my fault? Just how or why does the deletion event?

2) How can deleting, losing, just a few genes cause all the symptoms of Williams Syndrome?

At a basic level, the first question is easier to understand and is explained in a related article on this site “Williams Syndrome Genetic Deletion – Why Does It Happen?”. The technical stuff about why and how a deletion occurs is explained there in really easy ideas and language.

So now we're left wondering, what do these genes do? How can deleting or losing just a few genes cause all the symptoms of Williams Syndrome?

Again we'll start with the easy bit.

The gene that lies at the center of the Williams Syndrome deletion contains the code for a protein called elastin. Elastin is an important protein in forming a specific type of smooth muscle, making that muscle more elastic. This type of smooth muscle has many functions in our bodies but one important role is it forms a layer inside all our arms. When one copy of the elastin is missing or damaged, people often get narrowing of the treaties as they do not stretch as much as they should. The most common diagnosis here is aortic stenosis which is pretty characteristic of Williams Syndrome. Other effects may include more frequent incidence of hernias or diverticulitis.

But more than 20 other genes are also affected and their complex story is still being unraveled. The overall picture is still very patchy. Sometimes it may be possible to associate the absence of a certain gene with a specific defect while the deletion of other genes has more subtle or widespread effects.

There is some evidence that a gene called GTF2IRD1 (this technical name is important to the medical geneticists that have identified the gene) is important for proper physical cranio-facial development.

Other genes have a greater influence on the way we develop, understand and use language. We are familiar with the idea that one characteristic of Williams people who have this deletion is that they are over-friendly and chatty. They have surprisingly good verbal skills considering some of their other disabilities. We do not yet know which genes are specifically involved but we do know that in some people, there is the opposite condition. They have a duplication rather than a deletion of the Williams Syndrome region and have very poor language skills so researchers are working to narrow down the genes responsible.

Other genes such as GTF2I (encoding general transcription factor II, I) may be affecting the general learning disability and possibly together with LIMK1 (which encodes the LIM domain kinase 1) is probably involved in the visuospatial construction difficulties.

More specifically, having only one copy of the CLIP2 gene (encoding CAP-GLY domain containing linker protein 2) may contribute to problems with motor coordination.

The absence of the gene for Williams Syndrome Transcription Factor (WSTF), may have much more widespread effects on diverse Williams Syndrome symptomsas transcription factor interactions with several other gene regulatory systems.

Again, you'll find more information on articles and blog entries on the Williams Syndrome Adult website, so please do come and pay us a visit.

The hope is that, with better understanding, one day will come the potential for more effective treatment. In the present, these insights into the way the brain works, into the ways that we learn and develop skills, at least gives us better insights into how we can teach and support and encourage people affected by Williams to learn and to engage more fully with their world.

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Williams Syndrome FISH Test Explained

If you are living or working with someone who you suspect has Williams Syndrome, the chances are that you'll be talking with a medical specialist about this at some stage soon.

You may discuss the typical signs and symptoms of this condition but it will not be long before the doctor tells you that the gold standard in diagnostic tests for Williams Syndrome is the FISH test.

At this point you would be forgiven for thinking that they're beginning to lose the plot. What does Williams Syndrome have to do with FISH ?!

Please allow me a few more minutes to explain some of the technicalities behind this genetic test.

You may already know that human cells contain DNA and this is organized into 23 different chromosomes encoding or carrying our genes. In most cells in our body these chromosomes come in pairs. So we have 23 pairs of chromosomes (numbered 1 through 23) and within each pair, one comes from Dad and one from Mom. This means that we have two copies for most of our genes, one paternal copy, one maternal copy which are not identical but are very similar versions of the same thing. The tiny differences between one copy and another, between copies in different people, are what makes each individual, well, an individual. The final pair of chromosomes may be different to each other as they are the sex chromosomes that determine whether we are a male (X and Y) or a female (X and X) human being.

Each chromosome has many hundreds of different genes organized like beads on a string. The chromosome affected in Williams Syndrome is chromosome 7 and the number of genes on chromosome 7 is likely to be more than 1,000 but less than 1,4000 genes.

In someone with Williams, at some stage, probably during the formation of the egg or sperm cell, a small piece of chromosome 7 was lost. If chromosome 7 has 1,000 genes, a person with Williams Syndrome has lost just 25 or so genes from only one of their two copies of chromosome 7. This tiny difference is enough to cause what we know as Williams Syndrome.

The gene that lies at the center of this deletion is the gene for a protein called Elastin. Elastin is an important protein in forming a specific type of muscle, making that muscle more elastic. While elastin was the first gene to be identified as missing in the Williams Syndrome deletion, it is not the only gene missing and, in 'classical' Williams Syndrome between 20 and 30 genes are missing which contribute to the other characteristic symptoms of the syndrome.

So where does the FISH test come in?

Because the specific Williams deletion is so small, it's impossible to see the difference in the size of an affected chromosome by looking down a microscope. Therefore we need another type of test.

The name FISH test, is a very specific technical name meaning Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization. You really do not need to know what this means in detail but what it means in practice is we can make a small piece of DNA to use as a probe, like a piece of bait or a fishing hook.

The probe is designed to seek out and stick to the normal copy of elastin on chromosome 7. In order to be able to see this DNA, we can use chemicals to paint it a particular color so it fluoresces or shines in the dark. When we look down the microscope now, we do not notice the size of the chromosome as much as we see the color glowing when the probe binds.

In the FISH test you can imagine making a probe which is designed to detect only the elastin gene. If it does, and it binds to the elastin gene on chromosome 7, it glows pink.

When samples of DNA extracted from a small blood sample from someone with Williams Syndrome is tested with this elastin FISH probe, the remaining single copy of the elastin gene glows pink.

But, the scientists like to make sure sure before they make a diagnosis – and how can you be sure you have only one copy of elastin and not the normal two copies?

One way is to make a different FISH probe to another gene on a totally different part of chromosome 7 which is not involved in the Williams Syndrome deletion. If you label this FISH probe green and mix the pink and green probes together then what you get is an amazing picture.

When these are used to stain a normal cell from someone without Williams Syndrome and two perfectly normal copies of chromosome 7, you see two green spots and two pink spots.

The DNA from someone affected by Williams Syndrome shows two green spots (the unaffected part of chromosome 7) and only one pink spot (the second pink spot is absent as the elastin gene on the second copy of chromosome 7 is missing).

Does everyone with Williams Syndrome symptoms give this typical result in the FISH test?

Well, it is possible to imagine that the chromosomal deletions removes some of the associated genes in the 'classical' Williams gene block, leaving sufficient of the elastin gene to bind to the FISH probe so giving a false result with two green spots and two pink spots. In theory, such a person could show some of the symptoms of Williams Syndrome. Mechanistically, if this happens at all, it is likely to be even more rare than the classic Williams Syndrome deletion event and I personally do not know of anyone affected in this way. You may of course!

Equally it is possible for someone to have a defect or a deletion just affecting the elastin gene. If tested, such a person might give the typical result, two green spots and only one pink spot, but they would not actually have Williams Syndrome. However, lacking a copy of the elastin gene they would probably show symptoms such as aortic stenosis which many Williams people also show.

As is often the case with genetics, the answer is, it's complicated.

So that's it!

That's what it means to have a micro deletion of genes from chromosome 7 and why the FISH test is the gold standard for diagnosis of Williams Syndrome.

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A Child With ADHD Needs Guidance When Doing Homework

The worst problem a child with ADHD encounters in school is the fact that he has to sit still. And, on top of that, he must pay attention to what is said. By the end of the school day he is tired and frustrated.

And now he goes home and then faces the task of doing his homework. Another session of having to sit still and having to focus on practicing things he supposedly learned in school that day.

These children do not only have a problem sitting still and paying attention. They are often forgetful and disorganized. They might forget to bring home the books they need. Or, they may take them as they leave the school but then leave them on the school bus. If they're walking to and from school they might stop somewhere, put their books down and forget to take them home when they leave again.

A lot of children that suffer from ADHD are on medication. The effect of this medication might have worn off by the time they come home. Maybe the mother should make arrangements with the doctor to adjust the dosage so the child can still do homework without too much frustration.

How can parents help this child do its homework?

  • Be personally there with the child. Parents can take turns. (Mother one day, Dad the next)
  • Ask the school to lend you a complete set of books the child uses there. So you have them even if he forgives to bring them
  • In this age of computers many teachers have Websites where they daily put up the homework assignments. You can go there if your child hopes to write down his assignments or loses them on the way home.
  • Find a quiet place without distractions. And use this place every time. The child will start feeling comfortable being there.
  • Have the child read the lesson out loud. It's easier for him that way to focus on what he is doing.
  • Have him tell you out loud when he is solving a math problem. Have him tell you every step he takes to arrive at the final answer.
  • Have color coded folders for the child to put his finished assignments in. You can put these folders together into one master folder. This way he has everything together and the color codes will help him find the assignments he did.

Do not try to tell a child with ADHD to try harder. It only makes things more frustrating. The harder he tries, the more frustrated he will become.

ADHD is a neurological development disorder, not just a behavioral problem.

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Kids Eliminate ADHD By Watching DVDs With Neurofeedback

Imagine being able to exercise you or your child out of:

  • ADHD
  • learning and behavioral problems
  • mood disorders
  • eating disorders
  • depression
  • anxiety
  • PTSD

In the comfort and privacy of your own home. Neurofeedback is a powerful way to train you and / or your child's brain that is fun, easy, non-invasive, safe natural and has no adverse side effects.

This is a scientifically proven process that uses one or two tiny sensors on your head that pick up brainwaves in real time and sends them to the computer where they are immediately analyzed by the software and used to control brain games or the size of a DVD screen . So you are using your brain power to train your brain … no hands just brainwaves!

Neurofeedback is like riding a bike. What makes you stay upright is your brain. It receives information from your body about your position re the ground and sends signals to your body and arms to make tiny movements of the handlebars and shift your weight to keep you balanced. All this happens in real time and without much conscious effort.

Neurofeedback is like riding a bike except your brain is not telling your body what to do (making tiny movements). It's telling itself what to do (making tiny changes in brainwave patterns). We can graph these changes from each training session and graph all the sessions together to get a picture of the brain tuning itself back to health and normality.

The feedback works using any DVD played on your computer. When you or your child's brainwaves are in balance the screen places big and when they shift out of balance the screen shrinks. Just being aware that you have to keep the screen as big as possible is all you need to do … your very clever brain does the rest. This makes the training easy, fun and uses the natural motivation and concentration of you or your child when you watch something you enjoy like a movie or cartoons etc.

Neurofeedback is excellent for kids as it's so hard to teach them concentration exercises or teach them meditation especially when they have major issues with impulsiveness and focus.

Adults have enough trouble with learning this too. They often try meditation but can not do it because their brain's are out of tune just enough to make it too difficult. Either they cant stop thinking and just cant relax and let go or they crash too deeply and cant focus and feel spaced out. Neurofeedback can tune your brain very quickly so you can then learn and master meditation.

To read more and discover how you can beat the issues you and / or your child are struggling with. It's fun, easy, non-invasive, safe natural and has no adverse side effects. All from the comfort and privacy of your own home!

Visit my site.

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How Does Neurofeedback Eliminate ADHD?

Imagine being able to exercise you or your child out of:

  • ADHD
  • learning and behavioral problems
  • mood disorders
  • depression
  • anxiety

Neurofeedback is the most precise and powerful form of brain training. It is a scientifically proven process that uses one or two tiny sensors on your head that pick up brainwaves in real time and sends them to the computer where they are immediately analyzed by the software and used to control brain games or the size of a DVD screen . So you are using your brain power to train your brain … no hands just brainwaves!

How does neurofeedback work?

In kids and adults with ADHD and ADD their brainwave patterns are different to the brainwave patterns of kids or adults who do not have ADHD or ADD. It is the same for:

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Anger
  • OCD
  • PTSD etc.

Brainwaves are the way that we can see how the brain has tuned itself. In fact medical specialists and neuropsychologists regularly do EEG (brainwave maps) and compare these to normal EEGs to show people they have some problem, unfortunately all they offer is drugs.

Everyone has all of the brainwaves (Delta, Theta, Alpha, SMR, Low and Hi Beta) present in their brain but what makes a difference is the relationship of these different brainwaves. Too much or too less of a certain brainwave in a certain part of the brain causes problems, which relate to the particular brainwave and what function that part of the brain is responsible for. ADHD has a set of brainwave patterns in various parts of the brain that is different to kids and adults who do not have ADHD. Its the same with:

  • developmental delay
  • learning disorders
  • OCD
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Behavioral disorders etc

By mapping the brainwave patterns of your brain we can see how well your brain is tuned. We can easily see where there are imbalances and show them to you. Based on this map we target the training specifically to you and / or your child.

Neurofeedback uses your brainwaves in a clear way, as it enables your brain to exercise in very accurate and direct ways that change it's brainwaves back to normal and your issues slowly but definitely diminish and disappear … you become balanced because your brain has tuned itself back into balance. We know which structures control what functions and so can train those structures directly and eliminate the problems, associated with that part of your brain.

To read more and discover how you can beat the issues you and / or your child are struggling with. It's fun, easy, non-invasive, safe natural and has no adverse side effects. All from the comfort and privacy of your own home!

Visit my site

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Am I Dyslexic? What To Do Next

If you ask, “am I dyslexic,” then it's a possibility you could be. However, if you need to be really sure, you should get yourself properly tested. Although the freebies may give you an idea of ​​what to look for if you were dyslexic, to be really clear, you need to have a professional consultation. The main reason for this is that we are all unique individuals, and although dyslexia is a term used for many, it actually has many sub-types that manifest in different ways. It should come as no surprise then, that the way that dyslexics may be helped will also differ. This is why any dyslexia intervention program you may embark on would need to be individually tailored as what works for one, may not work for another.

Here, we are just going to give you a few of the possible symptoms of dyslexia that may at first glance seem a little odd.

1. How often do you make mistakes when writing checks?
2. Do you consider yourself poor at spelling?
3. When you are making a phone call, do you often mix the numbers up when you dial and find it hard to take messages and record them properly?
4. When at school, did you find learning your multiplication tables really hard?
5. Do you frequently find yourself mixing up dates and times and miss appointments.
6. Do you avoid filling out forms as you find them confusing and difficult?
7. Can you recite the months of the year fluently out loud?
8. Do you think you take a long time to read a page of a book?

Therefore, “am I dyslexic”? If you answered 'yes' to most of the above questions, then this surely could be possible.

Please note though, this is only a quick dyslexia screening, it is a long way from a professional assessment and is only an indication of a pre-disposition towards dyslexia.

Your next step should be a professional assessment that you can get via a number of local government education departments, a dyslexia organization or some universities. This will not be cheap I'm afraid, and if they offer a remediation program, that may also be expensive.

However, if you are still apprehensive about taking that first big step and want a little more verification that you may be dyslexic, why not try one of the paid online adult dyslexia tests that are available now. The reason for this is that some of online dyslexia tests have a lot more research behind them than the free ones and have been developed by accredited professionals in the field to give a better assessment. These tests are impersonal, so no one will make you feel that you are stupid. That said, there is certainly no reason why you should feel embarrassed at a professional assessment, you are expected to have difficulty with certain tasks and no one is going to be judging you.

So, “am I dyslexic”? Go on, it's time to take the plunge, and start changing your life today.

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Causes of Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia) is a motor control disorder primarily afflicting children during the first years of life. For about a century it was believed that difficult deliveries were the primary cause of cerebral palsy, but an extensive survey of more than 35,000 deliveries in the United States during the 1980's disclosed that this could account for less than 10 percent of cases. This discovery opened up the field for scientists to beginning investigating other possible causes and much has been discovered in the decades since.

Approximately 800,000 Americans suffer from cerebral palsy and each year 10,000 more infants are born with the condition. The symptoms include impairment of leg muscle coordination and body movement, but in some case the arms may also be involved. In contrast to other motor control disorders that affect muscle fiber or peripheral nerve function, cerebral palsy is caused by permanent damage to the brain's motor cortex. This damage could have resulted in genetic defects in fetal brain development, infections, maternal health problems, or the result of mechanical damage incurred during gestation, birth, or early infancy. Congenital cerebral palsy refer to children that were born with the disorder, while acquired cerebral palsy refer to children that suffered damage after birth. Regardless of the cause, there are four prototypical brain malformations that can result. These are periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), cerebral dysgenesis, intracranial hemorrhage, and hypoxic-ischemia encephalopathy (or intrapartum asphyxia).

Periventricular Leukomalacia

PVL describes the presence of tiny holes in the brain's white matter. White matter is white because the neuronal connections (gray matter) are wrapped in glial cells, and this wrapping enhances transmission impulses, insulates one nerve connections from another, and maintains the health of nerve connections. The formation of these tiny holes represents the loss of glial cells, which results is slower nerve transmissions, poor nerve connection health, and inappropriate cross-talk between neurons. The physical manifestation of this disorder is the loss of motor control and coordination. The primary causes are fetal or maternal infections, or physical trauma. The period between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation seems to be an especially vulnerable period for PVL manifestation.

Cerebral Dysgenesis

Cerebral dysgenesis is a term that describes incomplete or abnormal cortical development, and can be caused by number of different factors, including genetic abnormalities, infections, fevers, or trauma.

Intracranial Hemorrhage

The most likely causes of intracranial hemorrhage are fetal stroke, blocked or broken blood vessels, or a placental blood clot. The conditions that can predispose the fetus to these events include poorly developed blood vessels in the brain, genetic or congenital blood-clotting disorders, maternal hypertension, infections, and pelvic inflammatory disease.

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Circumstances Resulting From Dyslexia

Dyslexia causes several different problems for children and adults who suffer from it. This learning disability primarily affects the individual's ability to read, write, spell, and sound out words and letters. Dyslexia not only affects the individual, but also their family, co-workers, supervisors, and peers. Specialists all over the world, including the United States of America (especially Texas) and the United Kingdom (UK) have dedicated their time and talents towards finding the cure for dyslexia and ways to make living with dyslexia more manageable. As there is no current cure for dyslexia, parents of dyslexic children and dyslexic adults can only try to learn to live with it.

Causes of Dyslexia
Dyslexia can be caused by a variety of different reasons, including brain damage or trauma from an accident or other reason; a genetic disposition to dyslexia that has been inherited from family ancestry; and the development of dyslexia from hormonal changes that have occurred to the fetus while they were in utero. In addition, many young children who have hearing loss or problems may procure dyslexia, as they are unable to correctly hear and understand the way to pronounce sounds of letters and words. It has been proven that poor vision does not coincide with developing dyslexia. In addition, many dyslexics are left-handed, but this again does not always occur or prove that an individual is dyslexic.

Whatever the cause of dyslexia, many affected individuals experience the inability to read or write words or letters in order and may often have sociological setbacks, including the social development of normal communication patterns of children or adults in their age group.

Treatment of Dyslexia
The treatment regimen of may vary according to the specialist and child involved in the process of learning how to properly live with dyslexia. Each specialist professionally has their own teaching and assessment style. However, there are many common teaching methods that teachers and learning disability specialists have used to help children and adults. These include repetitive patterns when learning new mathematical concepts or words; modified homework or tests that may include fewer problems or questions; and the reinforcement of new concepts a few days after they are taught.

Typically, a dyslexic child is not 'stupid' – but instead typically has an average or above average intelligence level. While it can be frustrating and embarrassing for a dyslexic child to try to learn the same way as their peers in their class, teachers and parents must understand that they need extra assistance, which may include different teaching methods than the ones normally used. Daily individual attention between the child and their specialist and between the child and their parent is the best way to help the child learn the concepts and to do better on their school coursework.

Benefits of Dyslexia
It may sound surprising, but there are benefits to having dyslexia, no matter what dyslexia causes are present. Dyslexics typically have better athletic and mechanical ability, as well as a more creative thinking pattern. This has helped many dyslexics finish school and go on to accomplish great things, from the creation of popular paintings and pottery to the ability to become a great actor on stage and in movies.

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Finding Dyslexia Schools and Resources

If you are a parent of a dyslexic child or you are an adult that is struggling with dyslexia or another type of learning disability, it can be overwhelming at first to begin to look for dyslexia schools and resources. However, with the invention of the internet, it has become much easier to find help with learning disabilities than it has been in the past. Whether you are in the UK or Texas in the United States, there are hundreds of dyslexia non-profit organizations and schools that are willing to give help to those who need it.

For those looking for resources in the UK, visit the Council for the Registration of Schools Teaching Dyslexic Pupils's website ( Beside a list of available dyslexic schools, the website also offers a parent's checklist and information for independent and maintained schools. The Council for the Registration of Schools Teaching Dyslexic Pupils provides their information in partnership with the British Dyslexia Association ( and Dyslexia Action (

A quick search engine internet search for dyslexia schools in the United States reveals dozens of websites of private schools for children with learning disabilities, including dyslexia. In addition, the Davis Dyslexia Association International offers a lot of resources to adults and parents of dyslexics get help and find programs that can help them learn to live with this learning disability. The website also lists licensed providers of the Davis Dyslexia Correction program, through the United States and internationally.

Beside private schools, many public schools do have the resources available to help dyslexic and learning disabled children. These resources may include the services of a full-time speech pathologist, a counselor, or even a therapist. After a child has been diagnosed with dyslexia, parents need to reach out to their child's school and help lay out a progress plan and resources that the child can utilize while in school. Other effective actions that the child and his or her parents can take is reaching out to the child's teacher to suggest methods and ways that can make the child's time in the classroom easier. Some of these methods include giving the child more time to finish his or her homework and tests; modified the child's assignments so they include less problems; and letting the child use a calculator or multiplication table, if applicable.

Other non-profit awareness and education organizations that help individuals and families with dyslexia include the International Dyslexia Association (, LD (Learning Disabilities) Online (, and the Website for Parents of Dyslexics ( which also has a UK version that can be found at In addition, Xtraordinary People ( sheds light on famous people who are dyslexic, and how their disability has actually been a gift and has helped them in their career. This website leads to focus on the positive aspects of dyslexia, as well as each individual's talents. Famous dyslexics include Albert Einstein, Orlando Bloom, Tom Cruise, Jay Leno, Kiera Knightley, and several more.

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Adult and Child Dyslexia Screening Tests

Brief Overview of Dyslexia
Dyslexia is a neurological defect and learning disability caused by hormones while in utero, brain trauma, and / or genetics. Dyslexics commonly have problems correctly reading, writing, and spelling letters, words, and phonetic sounds. It is estimated that 5-10% of the entire United States population is dyslexic. However, only about 5% of that percentage is officially diagnosed with dyslexia. If a parent suspect that their child has dyslexia, it's best to take them to a dyslexia screening test so they are able to diagnose it as soon as possible. Knowing that a child has dyslexia will help them receive the extra teaching and support they need during school and through their adult life. Even though there is no 'cure' for dyslexia, it can be managed (and even used to the individual's advantage) with counseling and resources from experienced medical professionals.

Common Symptoms of Dyslexia
Before taking a child or adult to a dyslexia screening test, it's important to determine whether or not the individual is showing signs of dyslexia. Often, these signs are determined to be caused by the child's lack of intelligence – this could not be further from the truth. Determining that a child is of low intelligence when they are exhibiting the signs of dyslexia will only hurt the child and prevent them from getting the help that they unfortunately need.

Symptoms of Dyslexia include having trouble with reading, writing and spelling (this may include pronouncing words wrong or putting words or letters in the wrong order). Possible dyslexics may take longer to complete assignments, work obligations, or exams than their classmates or co-workers. They may also not fully understand instructions and / or the concepts behind them. This is especially true with math problems and grammatical rules. In addition, dyslexics may have trouble communicating effectively with their peers – this may be because they are unable to form thoughts and words correctly and / or because they are embarrassed by their disability and prefer to stay to themselves because they get frustrated easily. It's important to know that not all dyslexics will display all of these symptoms – it varies very between each individual.

Adult Dyslexia Screening Tests
There are many different types of dyslexia screening tests. They are usually given dependent on if a child or an adult it taking one. There are several free online dyslexia screening tests, but these are not usually as thorough or as complete as a test given in a medical professional's office. Speech pathologists, counselors, psychotherapists, and other experienced doctors and therapists that specialist in learning disabilities and dyslexia usually have proper screening tests that can exclusively determine whether or not an individual has dyslexia.

The Lucid Adult Dyslexia Screening test (LADS) is designed test adults for common dyslexia symptoms. These may include phonological questions, memory questions, and the ability to read words and letters correctly. The LADS test measures these core skills because they are common and almost every dyslexic has problems with them.

Child Dyslexia Screening Tests
Screening tests for children are simpler than adult dyslexia screening tests and mainly a statement of a medical professional asking the child a series of simple yes or no questions. Some of these questions include “Do you have problems spelling words?” Egypt “Is it hard to do math problems?”

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